Principles Of Marketing Global And Southern African Perspectives Pdf Download
china requires a large supply of natural resources to keep its industrial system going. since the 1960s, it has pursued a growth strategy that was dependent on fossil fuels, notably oil. the primary minerals, iron, chromium and copper, originate in the middle east. the middle east also leads the continent in the extraction of hydrocarbons. both the former soviet union and the people s republic of china, as well as to a lesser extent japan, south korea, taiwan and singapore, have established large footprints. these countries, which represent about 90% of global hydrocarbon production, are both energy dependent on imported hydrocarbons. in 2016, they accounted for about 40% of the growth of oil trade with china and between them, accounted for 97% of the growth in natural gas exports to the chinese economy. the conclusion is that africa is increasingly a strategic fuel supplier for major economies. africa is a leading producer of oil and the major gas producer, compared with other continents. in 2016, africa produced 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, and 175 million cubic metres of gas per day, making it a major source of fuels for industrial countries, as well as an important source of revenue. the latter helps africa to diversify its economy and alleviate dependence on commodities. this strategy has drawbacks, however.
the long-term lessons from the world economic crisis is that while almost everything is uncertain, nothing is static. the world has changed, and there is a new context, including new markets for the production of goods. globalisation has not resolved the tensions and disparities between north and south, and yet the world has become more interdependent than ever. china s presence in africa is closely linked to its wider strategic goals: to secure energy resources, produce goods and technology, and expand its influence in the global economy. the single most important factor that has allowed china to achieve such far-reaching success is its astute decisions to adopt a radical new economic system.
the paper focuses on the main stages of the first weo, which have been addressed in a number of other policy studies: (i) the adoption of goals and objectives, in particular, the rio declaration and un agenda 21; (ii) the adoption of the sustainable development goals (sdgs) and agenda 2030; (iii) the adoption of the first five goals and eight indicators; (iv) the adoption of the first global progress report on the sdgs.
their specific contribution, in addition to the global report, is related to the discussion of the inclusive, multidisciplinary and horizontal participation of stakeholders, as well as to the adoption of the principles, rules and guidelines for the development of the next global report.
social transformation in a globalized world summarizes an extensive body of literature on the topic of globalization and its impact on the sub-continent. it documents the social ramifications of the current wave of globalization, including a modestly positive impact on rural prosperity and the emergence of new concepts and terms that are especially prominent in south asian research, such as the term globalization. against this background, it assesses the major social implications of globalization, as well as provides an overview of the state of research on globalization, including a discussion of recent trends.
third, china hopes to further integrate africa into its global economic system. this has made china an important player in africa, which in 2016 became the top foreign investor in the continent. in addition to the silk road initiative, a key economic initiative since the 2000s, china has recently focused on the belt and road initiative, a global project of infrastructure development projects mostly in asia, africa and the middle east. the african growth and opportunity act of 2002 was designed to allow african companies operating in the us to access to american markets on fair terms. more recent years have seen china encourage the continent to change the way trade is done. africa, a region heavily dependent on its imports, was ordered in 2015 to seek to turn exports into exports. china, the second-largest trading partner for africa, is the market for trade and investment, as well as the biggest destination for african exports. the situation has changed over time. conventional trade studies estimate that africa generates about 1% of global trade, but exports alone amounted to about 17% in 2017. thus, trade opportunities with china are several times higher than those with other markets.